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Chinese Crested

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Chinese Crested

• History

Chinese Crested dogs don’t really come from China. They evolved from African or Mexican (no one is certain which) hairless dogs who were reduced in size by the Chinese.

The Crested is believed to have accompanied Chinese sailors on the high seas as early as 1530, hunting vermin during and between times of plague (today they can still be found in port cities worldwide). By the middle of the 19th century, Cresteds began to appear in numerous European paintings and prints.

Earlier names of the Crested include Chinese Hairless, the Chinese Edible Dog, the Chinese Ship Dog, and the Chinese Royal Hairless.

The Chinese bred the dog for its excellent ratting abilities aboard their ships, and sailors traded them at different ports. Documentation by Europeans of a hairless dog who closely resembled the Chinese Crested appears as early as the 1700s, when European travelers visited Chinese seaports and boarded Chinese trading vessels.

The Chinese apparently viewed the Chinese Crested as having magical healing powers; they also used them as living heating pads. They were kept by Chinese emperors as well as by sailors.

It’s unclear when the breed officially arrived in North America, but the first breed club here was founded in 1974. In China, the breed has become rare.

• Size

The average height for a Chinese Crested is between 11 to 13 inches for both sexes. They generally weigh up to 12 pounds.

• Personality

Alert and happy, the Crested adores and dotes on his people. Expect kisses and lots of snuggle time in your lap from this happy, loving little guy. Understand that he doesn’t accept strangers easily — but once he comes to love you, you become his world.

He makes an excellent companion and is extremely intelligent. Be aware, however, that many dog trainers unfairly rate them low on the intelligence scale because they don’t fit the typical dog personality profile. The Crested is not a good breed for insensitive trainers.

The Chinese Crested can be stubborn. Intensely social, he bonds tightly to his immediate pack. Really friendly Cresteds are the exception rather than the rule, as most are naturally suspicious of strangers. He can be reactive, and that trait combined with his high social drive tends to make him needy. He’s wonderful with familiar people but likely to bite strangers unless socialized and trained out of that impulse.

He’ll alert bark to protect his home (not that the burglar is going to be terrified). He isn’t particularly yappy, but he is adamant about his guard duty and will do his job. Some also like to howl or sing.

Temperament is affected by a number of factors, including heredity, training, and socialization. Puppies with nice temperaments are curious and playful, willing to approach people and be held by them. Choose the middle-of-the-road puppy, not the one who’s beating up his littermates or the one who’s hiding in the corner.

Always meet at least one of the parents — usually the mother is the one who’s available — to ensure that they have nice temperaments that you’re comfortable with. Meeting siblings or other relatives of the parents is also helpful for evaluating what a puppy will be like when he grows up.

Like every dog, the Crested needs early socialization — exposure to many different people, sights, sounds, and experiences — when they’re young. Socialization helps ensure that your Crested puppy grows up to be a well-rounded dog.

Enrolling him in a puppy kindergarten class is a great start. Inviting visitors over regularly, and taking him to busy parks, stores that allow dogs, and on leisurely strolls to meet neighbors will also help him polish his social skills.

• Health

Cresteds are generally healthy, but like all breeds, they’re prone to certain health conditions. Not all Cresteds will get any or all of these diseases, but it’s important to be aware of them if you’re considering this breed. If you’re buying a puppy, find a good breeder who will show you health clearances for both your puppy’s parents. Health clearances prove that a dog has been tested for and cleared of a particular condition.

In Cresteds, you should expect to see health clearances from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals (OFA) for hip dysplasia (with a score of fair or better), elbow dysplasia, hypothyroidism, and von Willebrand’s disease; from Auburn University for thrombopathia; and from the Canine Eye Registry Foundation (CERF) certifying that eyes are normal. You can confirm health clearances by checking the OFA web site (offa.org).

Dental Issues: These tend to crop up due to a genetic link that exists between dominant hairlessness and missing teeth. The Hairless Crested has small, peglike teeth that can slope toward the front of the mouth and cause problems; the Powderpuff has normal toy breed dentition. The Hairless often lose many teeth by the tender age of two or three. Some Hairless require canned food, while others eat kibble with no problem, as does the Powderpuff.

Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA): This is a family of eye diseases that involves the gradual deterioration of the retina. Early in the disease, affected dogs become night-blind; they lose sight during the day as the disease progresses. Many affected dogs adapt well to their limited or lost vision, as long as their surroundings remain the same.

Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease: This condition involves the hip joint. If your Crested has Legg-Perthes, the blood supply to the head of the femur (the large rear leg bone) is decreased, and the head of the femur that connects to the pelvis begins to disintegrate. The first symptoms, limping and atrophy of the leg muscle, usually occur when puppies are four to six months old. Surgery can correct the condition, usually resulting in a pain-free puppy.

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca: Known as “dry eye,” it’s exactly what the name implies: an inflammation and dry eye. It occurs when there’s a deficiency in the water portion of the tear film. The eye becomes dry and the membranes are left with only oil and mucus. The symptoms can be mistaken for conjunctivitis, which also has a gooey yellow discharge. Diagnosis is done with a Schirmer Tear Test. Treatment usually consists of eyedrops and ointment.

• Care

A Chinese Crested needs only minimal exercise — he is not a good jogging companion — but mental stimulation is important. There are many toys and puzzles designed for dogs on the market, and he can enjoy many of them.

Chinese Cresteds are generally easy to train but they have a stubborn streak, which means you need patience. Positive reinforcement is the only route, and correction needs to be handled sensitively, because the breed can be naturally timid.

Socialization is necessary, so if possible find a place that offers separate small-dog puppy classes, so your Crested can socialize with similarly sized dogs. He could be injured while playing with a larger puppy.

Crate training benefits every dog and is a kind way to ensure that your Crested doesn’t have accidents in the house or get into things he shouldn’t. A crate is also a place where he can retreat for a nap. Crate training at a young age will help your Crested accept confinement if he ever needs to be boarded or hospitalized.

Never stick your Chinese Crested in a crate all day long, however. It’s not a jail, and he shouldn’t spend more than a few hours at a time in it except when he’s sleeping at night. He’s a people dog, and he isn’t meant to spend his life locked up in a crate or kennel.

Crate training is also helpful for housetraining, which can be one difficult area of training for the Chinese Crested (as a group, toy breeds can be tough to housetrain) — but it will all click into place eventually.

• Feeding

Recommended daily amount: 1/4 to 1 cup of high-quality dry food a day, divided into two meals. NOTE: How much your adult dog eats depends on his size, age, build, metabolism, and activity level. Dogs are individuals, just like people, and they don’t all need the same amount of food. It almost goes without saying that a highly active dog will need more than a couch potato dog. The quality of dog food you buy also makes a difference — the better the dog food, the further it will go toward nourishing your dog and the less of it you’ll need to shake into your dog’s bowl.

Keep your Crested in good shape by measuring his food and feeding him twice a day rather than leaving food out all the time. If you’re unsure whether he’s overweight, give him the eye test and the hands-on test.

First, look down at him. You should be able to see a waist. Then place your hands on his back, thumbs along the spine, with the fingers spread downward. You should be able to feel but not see his ribs without having to press hard. If you can’t, he needs less food and more exercise. For more on feeding your Crested, see our guidelines for buying the right food, feeding your puppy, and feeding your adult dog.

• Coat, Color and Grooming

Powderpuff coats are seen in all colors and in combinations of mahogany, blue, lavender, or copper. They can be solid or spotted. The skin tones of the Hairless are pink and black. Perhaps it’s the Hairless’s essential nakedness that made stripper Gypsy Rose Lee a breeder.

The Hairless Chinese Crested is bald except for soft, flowing hair on the head, feet, and tail. Hair on the body should be shaved to protect the skin. Don’t use sun block or moisturizers; let the skin remain natural. The Hairless should be bathed frequently with a high-quality shampoo. Because he can be prone to minor skin problems, such as acne, check for any blackheads while grooming.

Powderpuff Cresteds are a lot of work to groom. They have a silky double coat, and the undercoat is copious and will mat if the dog isn’t groomed regularly. Shaving the face is an option. The Powderpuff needs to be brushed weekly, except when the puppy hair is changing into adult hair, during which brushing is best done on a daily basis. A pin or bristle brush is best. All mats should be worked out and any “felting” between the pads on the feet should be removed.

Powderpuffs should be bathed regularly but not as frequently as the Hairless, and they need a high-quality shampoo to avoid stripping necessary oils from the hair and skin. The dog should be towelled off and blow-dried to prevent him from getting chilled.

Start grooming your Crested at a young age. Grooming allows you the opportunity to bond with your puppy as well as check for any signs of illness that your dog may be showing. Make grooming a positive experience and you will find that veterinary checkups and grooming sessions when the dog has reached maturity will be easy and enjoyable tasks.

Most grooming services are available at the local pet groomer’s, and if you’re unsure or wary about doing any of it yourself, especially shaving, you should seek the help of a professional.

Both varieties can have dental issues, but the Hairless is particularly prone. Brush his teeth at least two or three times a week to remove tartar buildup and the bacteria that lurk inside it. Daily brushing is even better if you want to prevent gum disease and bad breath.

Trim his nails once or twice a month if your dog doesn’t wear them down naturally to prevent painful tears and other problems. If you can hear them clicking on the floor, they’re too long. Dog toenails have blood vessels in them, and if you cut too far you can cause bleeding — and your dog may not cooperate the next time he sees the nail clippers come out. So, if you’re not experienced trimming dog nails, ask a vet or groomer for pointers.

His ears should be checked weekly for redness or a bad odor, which can indicate an infection. When you check your dog’s ears, wipe them out with a cotton ball dampened with gentle, pH-balanced ear cleaner to help prevent infections. Don’t insert anything into the ear canal; just clean the outer ear.

Begin accustoming your Crested to being brushed and examined when he’s a puppy. Handle his paws frequently — dogs are touchy about their feet — and look inside his mouth. Make grooming a positive experience filled with praise and rewards, and you’ll lay the groundwork for easy veterinary exams and other handling when he’s an adult.

As you groom, check for sores, rashes, or signs of infection such as redness, tenderness, or inflammation on the skin, in the nose, mouth, and eyes, and on the feet. Eyes should be clear, with no redness or discharge. Your careful weekly exam will help you spot potential health problems early.

• Children and other pets

Sweet, gentle children are adored by Chinese Crested. Children need to be old enough to understand that they must be careful with these small dogs.

As with every breed, you should always teach children how to approach and touch dogs, and always supervise any interactions between dogs and young children to prevent any biting or ear or tail pulling on the part of either party. Teach your child never to approach any dog while he’s eating or sleeping or to try to take the dog’s food away. No dog, no matter how friendly, should ever be left unsupervised with a child.

Cresteds love other pets and are playful with them.

 

 

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Chinese Crested

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